China Shuts Down Marriott Website For Disrespecting Chinese Sovereignty

Filed Under: Marriott

Well this is going to be costly. China will be blocking Marriott’s website and mobile app for the next week as punishment for what the world’s largest hotel chain has done. What horrible act did Marriott commit to deserve this punishment? In a Mandarin language questionnaire that they sent to customers earlier in the week, they listed Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan as separate countries, which China views as disrespecting Chinese sovereignty.

Per Reuters, a Marriott spokesperson issued the following statement through the company’s official Weibo account:

“Marriott International respects Chinese sovereignty and its territorial integrity…We sincerely apologize for any actions that led to misunderstanding on the aforementioned stance.”

The Chinese government is asking Marriott to “take down all relevant content, conduct a thorough check on all contents it posted on its website and online application to prevent anything similar, and address the public’s concern in a timely fashion to eliminate a negative impact.”

  1. Smokescreen. It’s most likely because whichever Chinese interest was outbidded by Marriott pulled some strings back home.

  2. How childish. Taiwan is its own country and Tibet should be but for China’s violent and murderous tactics.

  3. China believes the whole earth belongs to them. Tibet is occupied by China. Taiwan is an independent country. They will soon claim entire far east counties are chinese.

  4. @LLC. China shot down on line registration before asking them to take down all the content. period. It is like shutting down the business if people can’t register for rooms. Period.

  5. Shame on Marriott for its silence on the occupation of Tibet and aggression of the Commies towards the sovereign Republic of China.

  6. Well deserved. And most of government-related hotel booking will avoid Marriott, which can cause a huge loss in revenue.

  7. @Debit @Delia @Jason @David S

    Whatever, I do not give a sh*t

    Better burn your smart phone, tablet, computer since they are made in China to support your anti-china ambition

    But how can you post here when you burnt all of them there?

  8. Reminds me of when the Indian foreign minster threatened Amazon because they were selling Indian flag doormats in Canada.

    These countries ultimately end up making themselves look pathetic and weak by overreacting to every perceived slight.

  9. @Debit , talking about evil…
    It is funny to see how people reveal themselves when hide behind of online alias

  10. ” In a Mandarin language questionnaire that they sent to customers earlier in the week…”

    Was this questionnaire in written form? Because there is no such thing as written mandarin. The written form is Chinese.

  11. @Alex , overreacting ? The only reason you feel this is overreacting is because of it is not your interest and you don’t care. Just like those women complaint harassment by powerful men , they have long been shut out because “overreacting”.

    It will be pathetic if they are powerless. unfortunately this is how this world works. But if you have to stand firm for your own interest because you know very well no one else cares for yours other than yourselves

  12. Don’t forget they claim the entirety of the S. China Sea too. Pretty ballsy for a country with 1 aircraft carrier made out of rusted russian boat parts and duct tape, if you ask me.

  13. What I don’t understand either is how come China can claim all of the S. China Sea and start building settlements all over the paracel islands that are claimed by 5 different countries and backed by international court saying it isn’t China’s to build on, and nobody gives China a hard time. Yet Israel does the same thing building settlements on disputed land and the world lines up 180-3 against them and Trump.

  14. Fun Fact: Taiwan also claims sovereignty over the entire China, including the mainland (They also claim sovereignty over Mongolia) So technically there is only one China, only there are two governments both claiming sovereignty over the other.

  15. First of all, this was not an accident. It could be an accident if they forgot to take something out or missed something wasn’t there. All hotel is Lhasa was listed under China in Marriott system so Tibet was never a country in their system. It is NOT an accident if you add an extra. Someone there try to make their own political agenda and the company will pay for it.

    Normally someone’s head should be rolling by now. But if that is the case, that someone will make big noise to protect too. So the company loose left and right. They have themselves to blame for lack of control.

  16. @david, please go! You’d be happier and somwould we! Can you take the rest of the southern states with you, please?

  17. @Rob Because after China claimed all of the South China Sea in 1947, not a single country opposed China’s claim for at least 10 years. Also, China’s claim predates the birth of United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1982, and it is the common understanding that a law cannot be applied retroactively. Better yet, shortly after China’s claim, maps published by Soviet Union, Germany, the UK, France, Japan, and other countries all noted that the South China Sea is a part of China’s sovereign territory. So the international arbitration court really has no legal basis to command China to abandon its claim. Even if the arbitration court forcefully rules against China’s favor, the international court’s decision is not legally binding to any of the UN member states under the current international law.

  18. Why doesn’t Marriott list Catalonia as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list Texas as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list California as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list Scotland as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list Hawaii as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list Sikkim as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list Kashmir as a country?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list New Mexico as part of the USA?
    Why doesn’t Marriott list USA as part of the UK?


    Marriott deserves it. They will see a HUGE loss in revenue soon in China. Good luck.

  19. @Rob , glad you brought up Israel.
    Yes China has some territory disputes with neighbors. This kind of disputes exist around the world. It doesn’t necessarily show the aggression of the countries, in contrary, it shows the weakness. US used to have “disputes” with Mexico, then it just had a war and took it. Disputes resolved.

    Israel is kind of special, it was a country created from scratch and the racial composition of the new country was predetermined which wasn’t achieved naturally. This was what made it so controversial.
    However, who dare to question Israel in US media? Chuck Hagel said something about “Jewish lobbyists” and he got hammered. Israel is powerful enough, they got all they wanted. Stop complaining.

  20. a very long time ago around mid 80s was on a business trip to China. I had to make a call to Taiwan but for the life of me I could not find the International Dialing Code for Taiwan in the hotel english telephone directory. I called the operator who told me quite sternly that I was looking at the wrong page as Taiwan was a domestic call and I should check the domestic page! (Luckily i was not sent to the gulag for this incredibly offensive error on my part!)

  21. Marriott’s suite of twitter accounts also “allegedly” liked post from “Friends of Tibet” praising Marriott for listing Tibet as a separate country. Again, allegedly, since it was just a screen print:

    It’s so funny to see so many furious comments here with that self-righteousness condemning China’s action towards Marriott. Many people believe Tibet should be independent and you know what, many don’t. Just like folks’ divided reaction to 45’s decision to move US embassy to Jerusalem.

    Bottom line is, you want to conduct business in a country but somehow doesn’t want to comply with or respect the laws/rules/regs there, especially a very sensitive one? Then you will be punished. Simple as that. Just switch roles for a second and imagine if a foreign company conducting business in the US somehow claims Alaska or Texas should be an independent country. Guess what 45 will tweet on that 🙂

  22. @Legerdemain. Yeah, yeah…I know…nine dash line argument China always trots out. Guess what? No country on the planet controls an international body of water. International law recognizes 12 nautical miles from coastline as sovereign waters of any nation. The rest is international waters. And if China thinks it is going to enforce some claim no other country on the planet has, it is going to have to buy a lot more weaponry…like a few decades of tripling the U.S. budget just to catch up.

    @Lu. You’re joking, right? 180 countries just questioned Israel and scolded them even though they fought and won 2 wars with its neighbors to control the land they control. China is the special one. Thinking they can just claim something and not back it up. If Taiwan belongs to China then China should roll some tanks through Taipei and roll the dice with what happens next. Otherwise it isn’t theirs, it is just another empty claim.

  23. I don’t understand why people want Tibet to be independent. The only people that will suffer are the Tibetans. Tibet does not have a good enough economic structure to stand on its own. Once independent, Tibet will lose all the funding it’s been receiving from China, and the huge tourist crowd. All the foreign nation will be too afraid to get on China’s bad side to invest any money into Tibet. It does not have enough wealth to improve infrastructure, or medical care, or education, their agriculture is not strong enough to support its population, and tourism will suffer significantly.
    But what do you care, you are sitting in front of a computer screen comfortably, the life an death are not important as long as you can appear to be politically “awakened”

  24. Keep your political agendas at home because honestly nobody gives a shit. At the end of the day Marriott fucked up doing business in a (huge) international market and it’s gonna cost them big time.. Just tried using Marriott app and really doesn’t work here in Beijing lol

  25. @Lucky. I’ve checked several airline and hotel websites and they list Taiwan, Hong Kong as being separate countries.

    If one is going to Taiwan or HK you don’t look under China

    I was in HK last week and don’t consider having been to CN

    In this case the CN government should ask all companies to review their websites

  26. Blog about this issue and you’ll suddenly unearth professional, government-funded commenters from China. “People’s republic??” Yeah, right…

  27. @Icarus , when there is a list of country, it normally liberally means country/territories. Because HK and TW are both considered as separately administered territory, China rarely give a fuss about that.

    This time, the problem is Tibet, which is not separately administrated at all. According to Marriott’s normal listings, they all under country China. So this was a deliberate attack.

  28. @Icarus not sure which ones you’ve been looking at. I can’t say that I’ve ever seen HK listed as a “country.” I’ve occasionally seen HK listed separately as “Hong Kong SAR” (which certainly doesn’t imply separate sovereignty).

    Listing Tibet separately is dumb. Listing HK and Macau separately without specifying “SAR” is dumb. And if you care about differentiating between Taiwan and the mainland (eg, postal address), you should ask people to choose “PRC” or “ROC.”

    Whatever Chinese-division staff put together that survey should be fired for stupidity. This is East Asia 101 stuff.

  29. @Lu
    HK and Macau are considered as separately administered territory, and is part of China.
    Tibet is part of China

    TW is a separate country.
    Taiwan has their own president, currency, army, flag, passport….

  30. My god, I’ve never seen so many Chinese shills on OMAT before. Are we now big enough to be a Wumao target? Sorry to be frank, but I honestly don’t want to see or hear commies on one of my favorite blogs. Can we do something about this please.

  31. gosh, I cant believe how many childlish comments are here. How about just give back hawaii, guam, alaska and texas. Oh makes sure, pleade burn the damn phone and your underpans. The punishment is well deserved.

  32. Marriott needs to start a new rate, maybe called the PRC Government Rate. If you check that box, the rate is higher than the rack rate.

    A long time ago, the US passport had some text in the advice pages referring it to “Communist controlled sections of China”.

    What Marriott needs to do is have a footnote about the word “country”. I think the US State Department has such disclaimer. I know they won’t want to put the country as “Republic of China” or recognize the Taipei government as the legitimate government of China.

  33. I am pretty sure Lu is a paid Chinese troll. Taiwan is its own country. I get the Chinese don’t want to admit it but it has its own government and there are 0 PRC Soldiers in it. Taiwan has its own defense force and set of laws. I get the PRC is mad because the nationalists refused to surrender but until you occupy Taiwan it will never be yours. I am willing to admit though that Tibet is yours because of your iron rule. Hong Kong and Macau as well because of the one countr two systems policy. But if you really think that you have control over Taiwan you are living in a fictitious world.

  34. This is mostly about Tibet. Usually China won’t fuss about Taiwan, HK or Macau being listed separately as these are conventions for hotel bookings. But listing Tibet out is a deliberate attack and I’m sure someone in Marriott will pay for being woke with a silly political agenda.

  35. I wonder in the last 500 years how many wars has China has involved in, they are an aggressive country,,

    Kind if reminds me of The USA..

  36. I had to read through so many comments before someone finally made sense. As @S NYC pointed out, it has nothing to do with whether the Chinese Government is right or wrong. Those are the rules, and if you want to do business in another country, you play by the rules. If Marriott feels so strongly about Tibetan independence et al, they can choose not to set up in China. Hasn’t happened.

  37. Give back Texas ?? Ha !! How about Puerto Rico ?? The ONLY reason Puerto Rico is an American territory is because Teddy Roosevelt (as then Secretary of the Navy) wanted it for a coaling station in the Caribbean for US warships. That’s the ONLY reason. 20 years later ALL warships worldwide had converted to oil, so there was no longer any ‘need’ for a coaling station. That’s the history. PR has been an economic mess for as long as it’s been part of the US. In the 1950s, 60s, & 70s, PR was chiefly known for providing fresh gang members to NYC & Chicago. Time to give it back to Spain and say: “We’re sorry, but this belongs to you.”.

  38. The ‘Latin Kings’ was the BIG Chicago PR gang as noted above. I know, because I lived there in that time period.

  39. Taiwan deserves another discussion (Taiwan aka the ROC also claims the entire China including Tibet) but under no circumstances Tibet should be listed as an independent country. Unless they want to go back to a slave theocracy led by a slave master now turned opportunistic Nobel Peace Prize winner.

  40. I agree with @Leo. Negativity here will not help anything and also, Lucky is just posting a general comment. He had no intention of making it political. Every race or ethnicity has done grave or stupid things in the past. Do not forget the days of the British Empire or American Imperialism. Do not forget the days when the Europeans gave smallpox-infested blankets to the Native Americans. What about the days of American slavery? What about the day when Americans forced the annexation of Hawaii from the former Queen of Hawaii? The bombing of Pearl Harbor? The massacre and atrocities at Nanjing? The unspeakable horrors of the Holocaust? Should I go on? So, people like Debit should either go back to school or take a course in sensitivity training before opening his clown mouth. Also, Taiwan is not considered completely independent by by the international community. No full voting representation in the U.N. It is a quasi government or de facto government. It is not considered independent especially since the international community including the U.S. and E.U. reaffirming its recognition of the One China Policy.

  41. Wow. The Chinese government has keyboard chimps like mr.Lu monitoring sites like this and chirping in with state propaganda. I would think they would have more pressing issues to deal with .

  42. A truly serious and careless mistake on the part of Marriot. Hong Kong and Macau are definitely part of China. Not separate countries.

  43. This kind of shit hole country you want to rely it to lead the world? Only Lu and other Chinese spies here would buy it.

  44. Someone at Marriott needs to be fired. Like seriously. This is an issue that the Chinese government would go to war over if it came down to it, so of course they are going to react like this towards Marriott. Talk about not understanding the region you are doing business in.

  45. See below for an example of a chinese gov-backed post. The long paragraph and weird sentence structures give it away.

    “I agree with @Leo. Negativity here will not help anything and also, Lucky is just posting a general comment. He had no intention of making it political. Every race or ethnicity has done grave or stupid things in the past. Do not forget the days of the British Empire or American Imperialism. Do not forget the days when the Europeans gave smallpox-infested blankets to the Native Americans. What about the days of American slavery? What about the day when Americans forced the annexation of Hawaii from the former Queen of Hawaii? The bombing of Pearl Harbor? The massacre and atrocities at Nanjing? The unspeakable horrors of the Holocaust? Should I go on? So, people like Debit should either go back to school or take a course in sensitivity training before opening his clown mouth. Also, Taiwan is not considered completely independent by by the international community. No full voting representation in the U.N. It is a quasi government or de facto government. It is not considered independent especially since the international community including the U.S. and E.U. reaffirming its recognition of the One China Policy.”

  46. Interestingly, every time Lucky made a post regarding anything about China, end it up in this heated debate/anguish. Truly, can we keep this forum outside of politics? We all have our own political beliefs, so can we keep this in private. Chinese Indonesian here.

  47. So stupid. The Chinese government doesn’t bomb, nation-build, or set up military bases in other countries like the US, but considered more evil partially because of petty actions like this.

  48. @leo @AirMika Comrades Leo and AirMika, you do good job for the revolution. The Chairman is proud. AirMika china is in the process of building military bases in Africa , South America , and on man made islands all over Asia. They most certainly nation build just ask their Asian neighbors. As far as bombing goes they prefer to bomb, starve and oppress their own citizens. Just wandering how all those Chinese students at western universities find the time to answer to every critical post online between their studies. Long live the middle kingdom.

  49. @Stanley I agree Hong Kong and Macau are now part of China. What were once unique and vibrant city states have now been over run by the locust and more and more resemble the toilet that is the mainland. And yes I have been to both within the last year.

  50. @BigG

    Just because you have been to does not necessarily mean you understand the history and root cause for the conflict between HK locals and mainlanders. I agree the prime time of HK was the decade before the handover to China but that is because Britain knew the lost of HK is inevitable and decided to restore autonomy. It’s also because at that time HK is the gate to the whole Chinese market but not the case now. In the 60s and 70s there are just as many as or even more riots in HK under British rule that is actually pro-China, how ironic. Geopolitics is never about who is good and who is evil.

    The amount of ignorance and childish thoughts I see here is appalling, but again we are living in a world where a professional wrestler can be elected as the president of the United States.

  51. @BigG Funny. Are u talking about the States?
    Bombing their own citizens: Massacres of the Indigeous people
    Starve their own citizens: United States lost over seven million people during the famine of 1932-1933, according to the official data of the US Census Bureau, analyzed by Borisov
    Oppress their own citizens(with tanks): Operation Hammer in Los Angeles / any Black Lives Matters event

    And Oh yeah. Visiting Hong Kong and Macau once or twice in your lifetime all in a sudden gives you all the knowledge you need about Carrie Lam, John Tsang, authoritarian regimes ruling coaliation, political structures within Hong Kong before and after the return to China. And all in a sudden you are the best political scientist in the world giving us the best direction that our Hong Kong shall go? Oh yeah, the mystery unsolvable by many political scientists in the best universities of Hong Kong could certainly be solved easily by a American knowing nothing about Political sciences but only political propagandas against the “potential threat” countries of the States, couldn’t it?

  52. Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are more or less understandable, and the CPC doesn’t really have a lot of trouble with them when dealing with airlines and hotels since they hold different passport than PRC. Listing Tibet is just pure political message (at least in the eyes of CPC) and yeah Marriott better not play with this fire if they want to still do business in China.

  53. Man you Chinese trolls are out tonight. Big G had a great point though. They are building bases outside the mainland. They also nationbuild as well (see the Korean War). The riots are less in Hong Kong partially from fear of the mainlands response IMO. @Winslow (if that’s your real name) really you are comparing the dust bowl/Great Depression in the 30s to Chinese punitive actions against citizens. For the record that 7 million number is a rumor care to share your source cause you can’t. And there are no tanks at BLM and you should look up posse comitatus.

  54. Oh please, @Charles S, armoured vehicles are well-documented to have appeared during the unrest following Michael Brown’s death in Ferguson, MO. This militarisation of police has occurred steadily since the 1990s:

    Nitpicking over a minor, incorrect detail vis-a-vis BLM and tanks while claiming any remotely “Chinese-sounding” posts are Wumao (without any evidence, least of all IPs) — the classic traits of an apologist for Uncle Sam’s crimes.

  55. @BigG “china is in the process of building military bases in Africa , South America”. Complete false equivalence to the HUNDREDS of U.S. bases globally, and even a Business Insider summary of a Pentagon report into the matter (from last May/June) only lists a “logical support” facility in Djibouti as a concrete base. It also states any rumours of additional overseas bases are just that — suggestions.

    And even the facility in Gwadar, near Karachi, strictly serves bulk carriers and container vessels up to 200K DWT:

    You might want to play less loose with key facts to avoid embarrassing yourself for being the vile racist (“locust”, really?) troll you are.

  56. @Winslow Actually been to Hong Kong and the mainland more then a dozen times in the last 8 years or so. I think Charles S has educated you enough, however I don’t understand how 1 country oppressing their citizens , the US in your opinion, justifies China oppressing theirs . But don’t worry comrade the chairman is proud of you. Keep banging that keyboard for the mother land and great rewards will come to you. Your ancestors are also proud. And lastly I’am not American and do not reside in the US though visit regularly. Just a casual observer.

  57. Agree @ Andy, Far East 101 HK Macau should under Special Administrative Region of China , Tibet as autonomous region of China ,Then There’s Mainland China , PRC , then cross the strait there’s Taiwan, ROC.

    Heck just list them all as Greater China to shut the hell up on them monkies

  58. @Charles S
    1. Calling out “Chinese trolls” is a very common fallacy of argument. You are essentially dehumanize and defaming the opposing person to prove their point invalid. However, a homeless may say 1+1 = 2 and claiming they are homeless and thus unknowledgable does not prove the specific point they are making – in this case 1+1=2 is wrong.
    2. As mentioned also by BigG, proving that China does the same as US(building bases, nations, etc. though to an less extent), does not validate these actions as reasonable or acceptable (as you may understand as: not evil) for either the party. Thus unilaterally calling one party to be evil seems childish and may be the result of propaganda.
    3. The decline of riots in Hong Kong, may be caused by multiple reasons. Given that China is indeed an authoritarian state, the newly adopted democratic system may have produced acceptable and satisfying results under the circumstances. Or say, your argument that fear of CCP caused less amount of riots, may be reversed and argued as: the less amount of riots and a relatively stable society after the return have greatly reduced the fear of CCP among people in Hong Kong. The causality of conditions can be argued either way and none is valid until evidences are given.
    4. I assumed your “punitive actions” regarding famine in China refers to the Great Leap Forward in 1958-61, which was mainly caused by economic mismanagement. Arguing the incident to be “Chinese punitive actions against the citizens” does not make sense. Considering that China was involved in the Korean War at the time, it wouldn’t be of their political interests to “intentionally” create a famine in order to punish their citizens and soldiers fighting a war in Korea. The same could be said about the Great Depression, the Federal Reserve System did not intentionally cause the Great Depression to “punish”, but its decision of not cutting short of the monetary deflation certainly makes it carry the responsibilities that led to a famine. As for the source of the number, here is the address. It might not be entirely accurate but I think we all agree that the Great Depression has caused served impact on people and yet no one claimed the US government to be evil for causing it.
    5. As Mentioned by CaradhrasAiguo, the armored vehicles and militarization of police has been a trend for long enough. The battering ram used by police to break down walls during the Operation Hammer doesn’t exactly seem to follow the posse comitatus, especially before its revision in 1981.

  59. @BigG
    1. It does not justify oppression from either of the country, yet the most of the people carry the impression of Chinese government being more evil. The interesting part of this is that we believe so deeply in “free choices”, yet we barely notice that the choices we are given can be manipulated. You may think that you could choose to read articles from both sides of the argument, yet most of the news you read are negative about China. The positive or unpopular opinions among a certain country or region may never be shown by your Google search results due to its preference of higher traffic websites. Similarly, news media tend not to write about unpopular opinions due to its dire need of clicks and attention.
    2. It is sad that after your repeated visits to Hong Kong and China, you still try to dehumanize people living in those countries, to an extent that, any person with opposing political opinion about China is considered a brainwashed Chinese citizen by you.

    On another note however, it is indeed very amusing reading your stereotypical ideas, and thanks to you, I had a good laugh reading your post.

  60. @Winslow I don’t have the energy to argue anymore with you. Your comparisons are very very weak. You shouldn’t have to justify your nations actions by pointing out flaws in others. My point was the US Military is not used to quell the local population. You are talking about police action. You bring up Ferguson but at no point did police fire into an unarmed crowd. In addition the Ferguson crowd started to violence. But no matter what you say and what you quote nothing will change your governments actions in the Spring of 1989 when your military fired on its own civilians. Now while you claim only a couple of hundred killed (already more than any police action in the US) you actually killed 1000s. You took political prisoners and purged them too. I don’t have time to argue with someone who wants to compare that with Ferguson case there is 0 no comparison. And please don’t try to say what about the Native Americans because that’s like saying what about the Dzungar genocide

  61. @Charles S I think you missed my point here. I’m really not trying to justify any government. I certainly know the inherent problems with authoritarian governments (purging, oppression, etc.), but it doesn’t necessarily makes all the other actions of an authoritarian state “evil”, as many others seemingly assume here. It seems many agree that calling Hawaii, Alaska, or Puerto Rico a country doesn’t seem appropriate. Especially with China, this issue is more sensitive and seems to be more about their political correctness.

    Since u mentioned 1989, I recommend you to watch the 3 hr documentary about it. You probably know the eventual military actions, but you perhaps dont know how Zhao Ziyang, the General Secretary of CCP went to Tiananmen Square and supported the student protests. Political issues like these are complicated and cannot be simplified as “China killed thousands of student protesters”. What’s more, if you really know enough about the event, you would know that Jiang Ling’s statement about tanks running down people contradicts directly with many other student leaders(Hou Dejian etc.), who believed no one was killed on the Tiananmen Square.

    Additionally, I don’t know why but you keep using the term “you” to refer the Chinese government. I don’t work for the government and am hardly even related to any of the deicision Chinese government has made. More precisely, I honestly suffered from many of the policies they carry(blocking websites/VPNs etc) during my stays in China. Nonetheless, I still think it is oversimplification to call any government “evil”, as many has done so.

  62. Ben,

    Can’t believe this, but Hip Hip Hooray for Marriott, they really got it right this time about Tibet and our hats are off to them.
    They took the small pain of their website being down for a week, but they really made a great statement that Tibet is and should be independent or at least still be able to remain a Tibetan country rather than genocide of its people.
    God is watching over that area.

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